Good Arena Footing is a springy surface with good traction and no dust.  Sounds pretty simple?

What constitutes ideal arena footing?

An arena surface is somewhat deformable to absorb impact energy, yet sufficiently resilient to give the horse more spring. It allows the horse to move so that his hooves slide gently into the loading phase. It provides penetration during breakover as well as stability during push off.  The ideal horse arena footing deters injuries in your horse and boosts performance.

What makes the worst arena footing?

Anything resulting in an arena that you would describe as too deep, too hard, uneven, too loose, too dusty, shifting, rolling, and not draining. A poor arena footing will steal confidence and cause unsoundness – the damage might not happen within one ride, but the accumulation of days, weeks, months of riding on improper arena footing will take it’s toll and take your equine partner to the vet clinic, eventually.

How to build a horse arena

The quality of materials is very important –  Hire an arena footing specialist with many years of experience, such as Footing Solutions USA, to work with your contractor to select the sand and oversee the project. It may cost more in the short term, but it will save you money in the long term. Get the job done right the first time.

Common complaints we hear all of the time:

  • “My arena base is coming up – rocks are showing up in the footing.”
  • “My arena base is not draining – we have a swimming pool after rainfall.”
  • “The arena base is getting uneven because of uneven watering of overhead sprinklers.”
  • The horse arena footing is too deep or too shallow.
  • The arena footing is too hard and compacts too much.

1. The arena base is the first and very important phase.

Solution 1: HIT Draingrid for building a perfectly functioning arena base with transverse drainage. This arena base will drain, not mix with your arena footing even with heavy use (e.g. lunging) and adds spring. Optional installation of sub-surface irrigation lines for even watering and water conservation if you live in dry areas like California, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico.

2. The arena surface your horse relies on determines optimum performance.

A surface that his too hard absorbs little if any impact energy. The high impact shock wave results in large concussion and will develop bone and joint problems. Horses working on an arena surface that is too hard will adjust their strides and movement to avoid excessive shock to the limbs, the strides become short. Horses working on a surface that is too soft and loose also adjust their stride and movement to cope with the extra energy required caused by the low impact of the soft surface. In all those cases, soundness and performance is compromised.

3. How do I judge if the riding surface is safe for my horse?

Watch the horse go by and look at the surface afterwards. If you see a hoof imprint not deeper than 2 inches with no shifting of sand then you know that you are on perfect arena footing. Also listen!!! – The less you can hear the hoofbeat is a good indication. Also, walk the footing yourself. If it is slick, deep, hard and uncomfortable to your feet, just think of what your horse feels.  If ride on arena footing just be aware of how your horse behaves and rides. Does he stumble a lot or is tender-footed on harder arena footing? Does he slip during roll-backs and tight turns? All these are indications that the arena footing is not optimal.

4. What materials do you use?

Sand – That wonderful ‘stuff’

High quality sand is essential to creating and maintaining the right horse riding surface. The next time you talk with your contractor or visit the quarry, explain that you want sand that is ‘hard’, quartz’, ‘glacial’ and ‘angular’. Unlike ‘river sand’ that has rounded particles, the sand you want for your arena footing will be durable (silica/quartz last a very, very long time) and angular for better traction.”  The particle size distribution of the sand plays an important role in the selection the right arena sand. It is important to ask your arena footing specialist for assistance before purchasing any sand.

Good sand isn’t cheap, but don’t be tempted to go with ‘dirty sand’ or ‘river sand’ or ‘manufactured sand’ – they won’t provide the arena footing that you want, no matter which additives you choose, they will also wear out much more quickly and decompose into stone dust in no time. The upfront expense of getting the right sand the first time around makes for an economical arena when measured over the long haul.  Jumping arenas do require a layer of 4″ of high quality sand, for dressage arenas 3″ of sand is sufficient.

Sand Additives

FS GeoTEX geotextile sand additives are the only additives proven to efficiently improve your sand arena footing. FSGeoTEX consists of a soft, thick needle felt which fibers have the ability to connect to the sand assuring the knitting and cushion effect to the sand. The result is a stable yet springy arena footing. FSGeoTEX special blend has a certain percentage of extra fibers to assure the connecting of the sand grains. Cheap felt, which is thin and stiff won’t work as well. So if you are out shopping for geo-textiles, compare the samples for quality. Always look for a thicker geotextile which can also hold moisture in the arena footing.

When you have the sand and felt holding moisture, it creates strength in the sand. Similar to how dirt is stabilized by roots in turf footing. When the horses come down on top of the footing, the felt or fibers compress and release the moisture back into the sand. 

Unlike rubber which is a loose particle and cannot connect to the sand, FSGeoTEX creates the perfect equestrian surface that provides:

  • Spring and cushion
  • Traction
  • Consistency
  • Support


Watering of the arena footing is essential. Water binds the sand grain together, makes it more stabile and eliminates dust.

Unless you have a private well, water bills can be astronomical. Of Course, using all that water draws down the water table. In coastal areas, like in California, this can result in salt water intrusion into wells, which ruins the wells permanently. In more upland areas, wells must be deeper and more are more costly.  Finally, there is the very real possibility that we could run out of fresh water in the aquifers.  As much as 50% of the water put on the arenas is lost through evaporation.

The amount of water to apply obviously depends on the climate.  If you have good geotextile footing in the Westcoast’s dry States you need to water your arena every day or other day. I recommend watering deep down to the base once and then go with no water the next day or two rather than watering frequently and lightly which just covers the 1/2 inch on top which evaporates within 1 hour.  The arena footing below will not stay stable if you just water frequently and lightly. When you use a geotextile sand additive which helps maintaining moisture in your arena footing,  you should analyze and compare the geotextiles.  We offer a thick geotextile sand additive which can absorb and hold moisture into the footing for a longer time without compromising drainage. 

Arena Maintenance

Establishing a maintenance program is essential. Building a riding arena is one thing; the maintenance of it is another. Firstly, make sure you are using an adequate arena drag and leveler, secondly use just enough or as little water for an optimum stable, yet springy arena surface. Even watering of arena footings requires careful attention – watering with overhead sprinklers is often very inconsistent. Unevenly watered arena footings will harrow in differently. To avoid this problem, Footing Solutions USA offers arena systems which water from below to ensure even moisture at every inch. The HIT Active Aqua System and the Ebb- and Flow construction both take care of the uneven watering issues while conserving water.

If you do your homework, building the perfect horse arena footing can be affordable and easy. Your arena footing is perhaps, the most important element to ensure performance and soundness in your equine partner.

Footing Solutions USA – California Arena Footing Specialists